Bio- und Gentechnologie – Umweltministerium NRW

Gentechnik (Gentechnologie)
Die Molekulargenetik hat sich in den letzten dreißig Jahren rasant entwickelt. Ein wichtiger Meilenstein war dabei die Identifikation der DNA als Träger der genetischen Information. Dadurch war es möglich geworden, gerichtet genetische Veränderungen von Mikroorganismen, Pflanzen und Tieren vorzunehmen, und zwar gezielt und direkt am genetischen Material eines Organismus. Die Gentechnik (Gentechnologie) war „geboren“.

Die Gentechnik ist ein Teilgebiet der Biotechnologie, das sowohl die theoretischen Grundlagen als auch die praktischen Methoden zur Analyse, gezielten Veränderung und Übertragung von Erbmaterial umfasst.

Organismen, deren Erbmaterial gentechnisch beeinflusst worden ist, bezeichnet man als transgen. Die Möglichkeiten, die die Gentechnik eröffnet, haben sowohl Einfluss auf die Pflanzen- und Tierzüchtung als auch auf die Medizin, die Mikrobiologie und auf viele andere Bereiche unseres täglichen Lebens.

Das Schaf Polly (Nachfolger des 1. Klonschafs Dolly) ist ein Beispiel für den Einfluss, den die Gentechnik auf unser Leben ausübt. Es kam 1997 zur Welt. Es war das erste transgene und geklonte Schaf auf der Welt. Die Eizelle, aus der sein Erbgut stammt, enthielt ein eingeschleustes Gen für einen menschlichen Blutgerinnungsfaktor. Ausgetragen wurde Polly von einem Mutterschaf einer anderen Rasse.

Gentechnik – Segen oder Fluch?
Die Frage, ob die Gentherapie ein Segen oder eine Horrorvision für die Menschheit ist, lässt sich heute noch nicht beantworten. Nur eines ist sicher: Sie kann zum Segen für die Menschheit werden, in der Hand von Unwissenden und Verantwortungslosen wird sie sich jedoch zur Horrorvision entwickeln. Im Moment sind wir alle noch Unwissende auf dem Gebiet der Gentechnologie, wie es zahlreiche Beispiele immer wieder belegen. Erst Anfang 2001 hat die amerikanische Arzneimittelbehörde (Food and Drug Administration, FDA) alle acht Gentherapieversuche an der Universität von Pennsylvania gestoppt. Dort war im Herbst 1999 JESSE GELSINGER an den Folgen eines Gentherapieversuchs gestorben. Immerhin gilt die Universität von Pennsylvania als das größte Zentrum für Gentherapiestudien und die dortigen Ärzte gelten als führende Gentherapeuten in den USA und genießen auch international ein hohes Ansehen.

Methoden und Werkzeuge der Gentechnik
Die wichtigsten Methoden der Gentechnik sind

gezielte Eingriffe in das Erbgut von Organismen,

der Umbau von DNA-Molekülen,
die In-vitro-Kombination von DNA-Molekülen verschiedener Herkunft, ihre Einführung und starke Vermehrung in Wirtszellen.
Zur erfolgreichen Genmanipulation gehören zuerst die Analyse, dann die Isolierung und/oder Veränderung bzw. Synthese von Genen sowie deren Einbau in eine andere Zelle, die sogenannte Wirtszelle, und die Identifizierung des Klons mit der Fremd-DNA. Am Anfang aller Gentechnologie steht die Erfassung der genetischen Information, also der Basensequenz der DNA. Der Erfassung der Basensequenz des menschlichen Genoms hat sich z. B. das Humangenomprojekt verpflichtet. Aus dieser Erkenntnis der Sequenzierung des Genoms besteht die Möglichkeit, bestimmte, z. B. krankhaft veränderte DNA-Abschnitte neu zu synthetisieren (Gensynthese).

Die entscheidenden Werkzeuge der Gentechniker sind Enzyme (Restriktionsenzyme), die die DNA an genau festgelegten Stellen ausschneiden können.

Bakterien werden derzeit in der Gentechnik eingesetzt. Sie besitzen eine nicht an Chromosomen gebundene DNA (Plasmide). Daher kann man die DNA relativ einfach isolieren, verändern und wieder in die Zelle zurückführen. Bakterienzellen vermehren sich sehr schnell. Dadurch erfolgt auch eine effektive Klonierung der Fremd-DNA. Darüber hinaus kommen auch Viren zum Einsatz, deren Genübertragungsmechanismen genutzt werden.

Water, Biotechnology Grade

42300008-1 Glycomatrix 1 gal 33.07 EUR

Tris-Base, Biotechnology Grade

42020309-1 Glycomatrix 500 g 34.22 EUR

Tris-Base, Biotechnology Grade

42020309-2 Glycomatrix 1 kg 63.17 EUR

5M Sodium Chloride, Biotechnology Grade, 500ml

PB0570-500ml Vivantis each Ask for price

1M Sodium Hydroxide, Biotechnology Grade, 500ml

PB0750-500ml Vivantis each Ask for price

3M Sodium Acetate, pH5.2, Biotechnology Grade, 500ml

PB0461-500ml Vivantis each Ask for price

Seven2Go S8 Biotechnology Kit pH/ion meter - EACH

PHM0026 Scientific Laboratory Supplies EACH 1429.65 EUR

10% Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS) Solution, Biotechnology Grade, 500ml

PB0640-500ml Vivantis each Ask for price

Electrophoresis baffle for Life Technology Novex

HTDB02 Shanghai WSHT Biotechnology pcs 2.8 EUR

Myoglobin (Up-converting Phosphor Technology)

abx095254-80Units Abbexa 80 Units 1144.8 EUR

D-Dimer (Up-converting Phosphor Technology)

abx095256-80Units Abbexa 80 Units 1579.2 EUR

Procalcitonin (Up-converting Phosphor Technology)

abx095257-80Units Abbexa 80 Units 1429.2 EUR

Interleukin-6 (Up-converting Phosphor Technology)

abx095258-80Units Abbexa 80 Units 1914 EUR

Creatine Kinase MB (Up-converting Phosphor Technology)

abx095253-80Units Abbexa 80 Units 1144.8 EUR

C-Reactive Protein (Up-converting Phosphor Technology)

abx095259-80Units Abbexa 80 Units 1144.8 EUR

Cardiac Troponin I (cTnI) (Up-converting Phosphor Technology)

abx095252-80Units Abbexa 80 Units 1579.2 EUR

Hach DR3900 VIS Spectral Photometer With RFID Technology - EACH

WAT3800 Scientific Laboratory Supplies EACH 10044 EUR

ReadiLinkâ„¢ Protein Biotinylation Kit *Powered by ReadiViewâ„¢ Biotin Visionization Technology*

5521 AAT Bioquest 1 kit 227 EUR

ReadiLinkâ„¢ Protein Biotinylation Kit *Powered by ReadiViewâ„¢ Biotin Visionization Technology*

5521-3Reactions AAT Bioquest 3 Reactions 222 EUR

Anti-ROBO1 Reference Antibody (Asclepius Technology anti-Robo1 CAR)

E24CHA370 EnoGene 100 μg 225 EUR

Heart-fatty acid-binding protein (Up-converting Phosphor Technology)

abx095255-80Units Abbexa 80 Units 1914 EUR

Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Up-converting Phosphor Technology)

abx095250-80Units Abbexa 80 Units 1863.6 EUR

N-terminal Pro-B-type Natriuretic Peptide (Up-converting Phosphor Technology)

abx095251-80Units Abbexa 80 Units 1579.2 EUR

Convenience kit: 2mL clear screw glassvial (9mm short thread) with SureStop technology and write-on patch; and blue screw cap (9mm) (PP: white silicone/red PTFE septa: 1mm thickness) with AVCS technol - PK100

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6PMSCK540W Scientific Laboratory Supplies PK100 118.8 EUR

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Red screw cap (9mm) (PP: white silicone/red PTFE septa: 1.0mm thickness) with AVCS technology ; Level 2 High-throughput Applications - PK1000

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6PMCK40W Scientific Laboratory Supplies PK100 168.75 EUR

MS Certified convenience kit: 2mL amber screw glass vial (9mm short thread) with SureStop technology and write-on patch; and blue screw cap (9mm) (PP: blue silicone/clear PTFE septa: 1mm thickness) - - PK100

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SevenCompact(TM) pH meter S210 biotechn - EACH

MT30130864-1EA Scientific Laboratory Supplies EACH 1511.4 EUR

Random Hexamers 100 µg

26-4000-03 Gene Link 100 ug 150 EUR

RNA/DNA Purification Kit (Magnetic Bead)

DA0623 Daan Gene 32 test/kit Ask for price

Specimen Preservation Reagent

DA0970 Daan Gene 100 test/kit Ask for price

PCR detection kit for Monkeypox Virus

DA1430 Daan Gene 24 test/kit 129.6 EUR

AGS8830-8 PCR instrument

AGS8830 Daan Gene 1 unit/set Ask for price

Nucleic Acid Instrument

Smart-32 Daan Gene 1 unit/set Ask for price

Nucleic Acid Instrument

Swift-96 Daan Gene 1 unit/set Ask for price

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Human Testis and spermatogenesis related gene 4(TSARG4)ELISA Kit

QY-E01563 Qayee Biotechnology 96T 433.2 EUR

Human Testis and spermatogenesis related gene 3(TSARG3)ELISA Kit

QY-E01564 Qayee Biotechnology 96T 433.2 EUR

Equine Testis and spermatogenesis related gene 3(TSARG3)ELISA Kit

QY-E120025 Qayee Biotechnology 96T 573.6 EUR

Tris - Biotech Grade

TB0196 Bio Basic 500g 86.1 EUR

Multi shelf rack For RS Biotech Galaxy 48R - EACH

INC6474 Scientific Laboratory Supplies EACH 502.2 EUR

DL-Dithiothreitol/DTT - biotech grade

ADC-P-082 Creative Biolabs unit Ask for price

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INC6166 Scientific Laboratory Supplies EACH 187.65 EUR

PC and printer for Stat Fax 4300 and 4400

PC Awareness Technology 1 unit Ask for price

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MRB0329 Bio Basic 500g 76.7 EUR

Additional perforated shelf For RS Biotech Galaxy 48R - EACH

INC6476 Scientific Laboratory Supplies EACH 143.1 EUR

Anti-BST2 / CD317 Reference Antibody (SBI Biotech anti-BST2)

E24CHB092 EnoGene 100 μg 225 EUR

GVB++ (with Ca and Mg)*

B100 Complement Technology 1 L 246 EUR

GVB++ (with Ca and Mg)*

B102 Complement Technology 250 mL 96 EUR

VBS++ (with Ca and Mg)*

B112 Complement Technology 250 mL 96 EUR

VBS++ (with Ca and Mg)*

B113 Complement Technology 1 L 246 EUR

African Swine Fever Real-time PCR kit (contain exogenous and endogenous gene)

ZP012 Ring Biotechnology Co 50T 150 EUR

GVB° (without Ca and Mg)*

B101 Complement Technology 1 L 246 EUR

GVB° (without Ca and Mg)*

B103 Complement Technology 250 mL 92 EUR

VBSo (without Ca and Mg)*

B114 Complement Technology 250 mL 96 EUR

VBSo (without Ca and Mg)*

B115 Complement Technology 1 L 246 EUR

Chlorination and Oxidation detection Kit

MPOHOCL100-3 Cell Technology 500+300 Tests 660 EUR

Human interferon activated gene 205(Ifi205)ELISA Kit

QY-E03439 Qayee Biotechnology 96T 433.2 EUR

Additional filters 405 and 700 nm for Stat Fax 4200

6-Filters Awareness Technology 1 unit 187 EUR

Human similar to RIKEN cDNA 2610307008 gene ELISA Kit

QY-E02388 Qayee Biotechnology 96T 433.2 EUR

Gene Knockout Kit, Plasmid, Validated, 20rxns/pk

K111S1 NEST Biotechnology 1 pcs/cs 913.99 EUR

Human Paired Box Gene 9(PAX9) ELISA Kit

QY-E02003 Qayee Biotechnology 96T 433.2 EUR

Gene Knockout Kit, Lentivirus, Validated, 10rxns/pk

K112S1 NEST Biotechnology 1 pcs/cs 1814.34 EUR

Rat regeneRating gene Ⅳ(REG-4)ELISA Kit

QY-E10897 Qayee Biotechnology 96T 433.2 EUR

Human cell division cycle gene(CDC)ELISA Kit

QY-E00992 Qayee Biotechnology 96T 433.2 EUR

Human regenerating gene Ⅳ(REG-4)ELISA Kit

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Mouse regeneMouseing gene Ⅳ(REG-4)ELISA Kit

QY-E21309 Qayee Biotechnology 96T 433.2 EUR

Human MAX Gene Associated Protein(MgA) ELISA Kit

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Rat growth arrest-specific gene-6(gas-6)ELISA Kit

QY-E10662 Qayee Biotechnology 96T 433.2 EUR

Mouse growth arrest-specific gene-6(gas-6)ELISA Kit

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Human growth arrest-specific gene-6(gas-6)ELISA Kit

QY-E01578 Qayee Biotechnology 96T 433.2 EUR

Rat calcitonin gene related peptide(CGRP)ELISA Kit

QY-E11297 Qayee Biotechnology 96T 433.2 EUR

Gene Knockout Kit, Plasmid, Non-Validated, 20rxns/pk

NK111S1 NEST Biotechnology 1 pcs/cs 753.39 EUR

Human Interferon stimulated gene 15(ISG15)ELISA Kit

QY-E03661 Qayee Biotechnology 96T 433.2 EUR

Mouse calcitonin gene related peptide(CGRP)ELISA Kit

QY-E20232 Qayee Biotechnology 96T 433.2 EUR

Human calcitonin gene related peptide(CGRP)ELISA Kit

QY-E02850 Qayee Biotechnology 96T 433.2 EUR

Gene Knockout Kit, Lentivirus, Non-Validated, 10rxns/pk

NK112S1 NEST Biotechnology 1 pcs/cs 1667.16 EUR

Human similar to RIKEN cDNA 4933429F08 gene ELISA Kit

QY-E02385 Qayee Biotechnology 96T 433.2 EUR

Human similar to RIKEN cDNA 4931408D14 gene ELISA Kit

QY-E02386 Qayee Biotechnology 96T 433.2 EUR

Gentechnik in der praktischen Anwendung

Gentechnische Methoden finden in vielen Bereichen Anwendung, so beispielsweise

  • in der Medizin,
  • bei der Herstellung von Enzymen oder Chemikalien in der Industrie,
  • bei der Herstellung von Lebens- und Futtermitteln bzw. deren Zusatzstoffen oder
  • in der Landwirtschaft.
  • Bei gentechnischen Verfahren in der Landwirtschaft – der sogenannten „Grünen Gentechnik“ – werden zum Beispiel Pflanzen mit gentechnischen Methoden gegen Schädlinge, Krankheiten oder Herbizide unempfindlich gemacht.

Die Anwendung der Gentechnik erfordert einen verantwortungsvollen Umgang und sorgfältige Abwägung von Chancen und Risiken, insbesondere hinsichtlich langfristiger Folgen für Mensch und Umwelt. Das bedeutet, dass eine möglichst große Transparenz und Kontrolle, gezielte Forschung zu Sicherheitsfragen und sozioökonomischen Auswirkungen sowie eine ethische Begleitung unerlässlich sind. Die gesetzlichen Rahmenbedingungen für die Nutzung der Gentechnik ergeben sich aus dem Gentechnikrecht.

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